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Research publications: we do applied research in a number of fields, mainly involving disruptive technologies, applications of AI, blockchain, cybersecurity and process automation. Below are our current research publications and white papers. If you would like any further information please see our contact page.


Advances in Process Automation, Oct 2020: Reviews the state of the art in process automation and future directions.


Bias, Ethics & Fairness in AI, Sep 2020: Reviews bias, ethics & fairness, and how 'bad AI' may be explained and improved.


Federated Learning, Aug 2020: Reviews the state of the art, opportunities and challenges in distributed learning.

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2020: Dutch researchers plan to complete an 'unhackable' quantum internet between Delft and the Hague.

2019: Researchers at Insilico Medicine (Hong Kong) and the University of Toronto announce that AI algorithms had selected approximately 30,000 unexplored molecule combinations, with six promising new compounds identified.

2019: "NVIDIA Corporation introduced the smallest AI supercomputer, called Jetson Xavier NX in November 2019."

2017: At bitcoin's peak in December 2017, these were worth over US$19 billion.

2014: Generative adversarial network (GAN) created by Ian Goodfellow and his colleagues at the University dof Montreal.

1986: Backpropagation and its general use in neural networks created by Rumelhart, Hinton & Williams.

2008: bitcoin.org domain name registered by Satoshi Nakamoto on 18 August 2008.

1994: Cheswick and Bellovin authored the first book on firewalls in 1994 while at AT&T Bell Labs, building a circuit-level gateway with packet filtering - arguably the forerunner of modern firewalls.

1987-1993: Second AI Winter. In 1984 Schank and Minsky—two warn the business community that enthusiasm for AI was out of control. Three years later, the billion-dollar AI industry started to collapse in another AI winter.

1975-1980: First AI Winter.

1966: Failure of Machine Translation.

1950s: Hubel and Wiesel in the 1950s and 1960s demonstrate that cat and monkey visual cortexes contain neurons that respond individually to small regions of the visual field (of later importance for deep learning, and CNNs)